Saturday, 17 March 2012

Images are pictures made of words. Images help us to visualise something clearly by appealing to one or more of our five senses.

  • Images appeal to our sense of sight by describing the appearance of things, such as their colour, shape and size.
  • Images appeal to our sense of hearing by describing sounds, such as those made by animals and birds, the wind, music and people speaking or singing
  • Images appeal to our sense of smell by describing smell, such as food cooking, flowers or smoke from a fire.
  • Images appeal to our sense of taste by using words that help us imagine the taste of things, for example, sweet, bitter or salty.
  • Images appeal to our sense of touch by describing the way things feel in our hands, for example, soft, furry, greasy, rough, or sharp.
Images are often created by comparing two things. Making a comparison is a way to show how something can be the same or different from another thing. Similes, metaphors and personification are all ways of comparing things.
  • Similes
A simile is an image that compares one thing with another, and is introduced by the words like or as. These words tell us that two things are being compared, and we think about the similarities between them. Different similes could have been used to compare other aspects of the creatures. 
  •  Metaphors
Metaphors is another type of image where one thing is compared to another. Metaphors seem to say that one thing is the other thing, because they leave out the words like or as that tell us a comparison is being made.
  • Personification
Personification is a type of metaphor where something that is not human is given  human qualities.

Lines are  an important feature of poem. They make a piece of writing look like a poem, In most kind of writing, lines go from one margin to the other. In poem, lines can be many different lengths, and can also help us to understand the meaning of a poem. The types of lines that we can find in poems include lines that are complete sentences, lines that are part of a sentence, lines that have only one word, lines that have several words, lines that start with small or capital letters, short and dramatic lines, long and thoughtful lines, lines of equal length, lines of varied lengths, opening lines that tell what the poem is about, closing lines that sum up the poem, lines that are set out underneath each other and lines that are arranged in a design or picture to add meaning to the poem. 

  • Stanzas and groups of lines
A stanza is a group of lines that is separated by a space from other stanzas. Some stanzas have a definite pattern, such as equal numbers of lines, although this may vary. a poem may have one stanza or many stanzas. The word stanza comes from an Italian word meaning a room. It will help us to think of a poem as a series of rooms, each having a different purpose. Usually, a new stanza shows some change in the poem, This might be a new person speaking, a change of topis, a change of setting or a new event in a story. 

  • Shape poems
Shape poems are another example of varying line in lengths in a poem. Shape poems have lines that are arranged in a design or picture to add meaning to the poem. The way the words are arranged emphasises the way  things happen.

Patterns are  a feature of poem. Many poem have regular pattern of rhyme or rhythm. Other pattern are formed by the repetition of words, lines or images. Some poems. such limericks, haiku and cinquains have their own patterns. These may be patterns of rhyme or counted syllables.
  •   Limerick
Limericks are short poems that tell little stories. Limericks have been written for hundreds of years. Limerick can be written about any topic but they are usually humorous in tone so no one takes the stories seriously. The humor is emphasised by the rhymes and rhythms. Limerick has a definite pattern of syllables, rhyme and rhythm. Limericks always open with a line of eight syllables that refers to a person and a place or that gives a person's name and occupation. 
  • Haiku
Haiku are very short poems. Traditional haiku contain a reference to nature or to an emotion. They do not have many of the features of other poems. It is written in patterns of syllables - lines 1 has 5 syllables, line 2 has 7 syllables and line 3 has 5 syllables. Haiku have no  regular rhythm, no rhymes, no metaphors or similes, no title and do not tell a story. Haiku is originated in Japan.
  • Cinquains
A cinquain is a poem containing five lines. It can be a complete poem or a stanza of a poem. There are two types of cinquains; syllable cinquains and word cinquains. 

The words in a poem must have  meaning for the reader. They are not simply words scattered on a page. The meaning of a poem will vary from one poem to another, and from one reader to another.  the earliest poems were made up before books were invented, or were used to tell stories for people who could not read. These poems were spoken aloud and passed from one generation to another without ever being written down. They were designed to entertain people and to help them remember stories and traditions. Traditional narrative (story) poems entertain us. Reciting  narrative poems was a popular way to tell radios before radio and television was invented. They can also give us information about things that happened in history, and often carry a message about how to live well. Humorous poems are written just to make us laugh, while other poems make fun of a person or event in the news. Many poems and songs are written to express feelings. Poems and songs that do this are called lyrics. Some poems are written to persuade us of something, such as the importance of caring for the environment. Poems can be used as songs to promote an idea such as safety or healthy eating. Poems and songs are also used to advertise programs and products on radio and television.

Poems were originally written to be spoken aloud, to entertain people with stories or to give information about the world. The sound in poetry, particularly the rhymes and the rhythm, help people remember them.Sounds is important in poems because:
1. sound is everywhere- in language, music and nature. Think of the sounds of the wind and the sea, the rain clattering, a brass band, a singer or a magpie.
2. sound can give us pleasure, surprise us, make us laugh or cry.
3. sound can help create a rhythm and rhyme in a poem.
4. sound can help us to remember things, such as advertising jingles or the number of days in each month.

The main sounds in poem are formed by rhyme and rhythm.
1. Rhyme
Rhyme is the most noticeable sound effect in poem. It is part of the music of poem that makes it pleasant to read and hear. Rhyming words end with similar sounds. The rhymes make a regular pattern in the poem.  They are placed at the ends of lines 1 and 2 in each stanza or group of lines. Yet there is another rhyme where a word in the middle of the line, rhymes with the word at the end of the line. Different types of rhymes can be used in poetry.Most pairs of rhyming words are alike in both their sound and spelling. Sometimes, one pair of rhyming words sound alike but are spelt differently and in one pair of words, a one-syllable word rhymes with the second syllable of another. 
2. Rhythm 
Rhythm is also part of the music of the poem and one of the reasons we remember poem. The rhythm is part of  beats in a poem. The rhythm of some poems is as regular as the ticking of a clock, while other poems have a rhythm that varies within the poem and does not have a regular beat. Some poem may have a rhythm or beat that is created by pattern of syllables. These syllables are emphasised in the poem when you read it aloud. some poems have a rhythm to suit the topics.

Sounds in poetry can also be formed by using a combination of certain letters in words, called alliteration. Sound is also formed by using special types of words called onomatopoeia.
3. Alliteration
Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close together in the poem. Consonants are all the letters in the alphabet apart from the vowels a, e, i, o, u. It is also part of the sound effects in poem that can create a pattern of sounds, draw attention to words, help us remember things, amuse us and create a pleasant combinations of sounds.
4. Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia is a word meaning making a name or matching sound to meaning. It is one of the sounds effect in poetry too. When we say these words, we can hear them in action.

Thursday, 15 March 2012


What makes a poem special?
1. Imagery :  Poems create pictures in our mind, called images. Images often refer to our sense of sight, smell, sound, taste and touch. An image may describe something, or it may compare one thing to another. Images help you see something as if it is really there. We touch, hear, see, smell and taste as a mental experience when we read poems. 
2. Poetic devices : Poetic devices add richness to the language by saying some things in ways that are not ordinary. Some common poetic devices are as follow: 
2.1 Figures of speech
       2.1.1 Metaphor
       2.1.2 Simile
       2.1.3 Personification
       2.1.4 Symbol
2.2 Music and Sound
       2.2.1 Alliteration
       2.2.2 Rhyme
       2.2.3 Onomatopoeia
2.3 Choice of words
       2.3.1 Words that produce a positive or negative effect
       2.3.2 Word order
       2.3.3 Repetition of words or structure of lines
3. Subject matter : What do the poets write about.
       3.1 Nature - Poems show us what nature has to offer and help us to reflect on the power of nature.
    3.2 Life - Ask us to introspect into our being and better understand ourselves as individuals and   members of the society or the world at large.
       3.3 Shaped - Use specific shapes to help  us draw meaning from poems.
       3.4 Inspiration - Use lessons and life's observations to allow us to learn about and learn from life.
4. Theme : It is the message that the poet wants to convey. It may be the point of view as  expressed by the speaker or voice in the poem. It could also be the central idea of the poem.

Wednesday, 14 March 2012


Poems are made up of words that create images or pictures in our minds. They have been described as" the best words in the best order", and there are many ways of writing poems. Many poems sound like songs when you read them aloud. This is because poems have a regular rhythm and repeated lines, words or sounds.

Poems have a particular appearance that tells you they are poems before you even read the words. Poems have shorter lines than most sorts of writing. The words of a poem may make short sentences or lists. Sometimes, poems may be shaped to represent a topic, or they might be scattered all over the page.

There are no special topics for poems. They can be about mosquitoes, babies, the sea, supermarkets, friends, skateboards, mountains, anything at all. Poems can be conversations, statements, stories or descriptions. They can be serious or funny. They are written in many purposes; to describe something, to tell a story, to explain feelings, to make a message on a greeting card or to advertise product.

After reading and  understanding how they work, you might even like to write your own poems.

Tuesday, 13 March 2012


A poem is a creative form of writing which uses beautiful language or expressions. It is usually written in verse and has a series of lines separated into groups called stanzas. It is  written to convey experiences, ideas or emotions in an imaginative way. A poet writes poems using literary techniques  such as meter, metaphor and rhyme. A poem can evoke awe, inspire action or just make you think about an idea.

A poem :-
1. Uses word pictures to build impressions and creates images.
2. Plays with the sound of words and the rhythm of the phrases.
3. Meant  to revealed the poet's feelings.
4. May stir up deep feelings in readers.
5. Uses the sounds of language in a special way.
6. Uses fewer words than prose to express ideas.
7. Intended to be read aloud.


1. Ballad - a long singing poem which tells a story.
2. Elegy -  a lyrical poem to commemorate the  dead.
3. Epigram - a brief but witty poem.
4. Free verse - there is no identifiable metre but the lines may have a rhyme scheme.
5. Lyric - a poem that expresses powerful feelings.
6. Narrative verse - a poem that tells a story.
7. Sonnet - a fourteen-line poem.

Saturday, 10 March 2012


The aesthetic component of the English Language Curriculum introduces a selection of poems, short stories, plays and novels or the express purpose of acquainting pupils with good literature in English. It is hoped that their experience with creative works will stimulate their interest in reading and therefore, support their language development.

The Ministry of Education marks the second round of the aesthetic component implementation since it started in the year 2000. The text book, A Collection of Poems, Short Stories and Drama consists of three genres namely poems written by local and foreign poets, short stories suitable for teenage readers and a drama. The texts have been chosen  based on the criteria such as authenticity, aesthetics values, moral values, moral values, humor, teenage issues, length and language.

There are 6 poems in the text book. The Ministry of Education hopes that classrooms should be lively, with pupils engaged in creative activities that will bring the texts to life. The poems are:
1. I Wonder - Jeannie Kirby
2. The River - Valerie Bloom
3. Mr Nobody - Author Unknown 
4. Heir Conditioning - M SHANmughalingam
5. A Fighter's  Lines - Marzuki Ali
6. Leisure - William Henry Davies

English is a compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools curriculum in line with its status as a second language in Malaysia. The Cabinet Committee Report on the Review of the Implementation of the Education Policy !979 states that the teaching of English is to enable all school-leavers to use English in certain everyday situations and work situations. 

Thus, a small literature  component has been added to the curriculum. This will enable learners to engage in wider reading of good works for enjoyment and for self-development. They will also develop an understanding of other societies, cultures, values and traditions that will contribute to their emotional and spiritual growth.

Language Use
The three areas of language use are:

   Language for Interpersonal purposes enables learners to establish and maintain friendships and also collaborate with people to do certain things.
2. Informational
    Language for Informational purposes enables learners to use language to obtain, process and give information.
3. Aesthetic.
    Language for Aesthetic purposes enables learners to enjoy literary texts at a level suited to their language and to express themselves creatively.

 Language Use for Aesthetic Purposes

In the syllabus it is stated that :
The aesthetic purposes of language use involves the ability to enjoy literary texts at a level appropriate to learners' ability. Learners are also expected to be able to express ideas, thoughts, beliefs and feelings creatively and imaginatively. The study of moral values is also  given emphasis in this area of language use.
literary texts at a level appropriate to learners’ ability.

The Learning Outcomes
 The learning outcomes for aesthetic use are as follows:

1. Listen to, read, view and respond to literary works by
a. understanding and retelling in one’s own words the story, play, poem and song heard and read and the  film viewed and giving one's opinion of the texts;
b. recognising elements in a story such as characters, events;
c. explaining the message the writer is trying to convey and discussing how this relate to one's life;
d. understanding other peoples’ cultures, traditions, customs and beliefs;
e. reciting poems with feeling and expression.

2.  Express themselves creatively and imaginatively by
a. dramatising texts and role-playing characters ;
b. retelling a story from a different point of view and presenting it in another genre:
c. composing simple poems, stories and dialogues.

Friday, 2 March 2012


Grace be upon Allah the Almighty, with his blessings, the blog for the literature component, A Collection of Short Stories, Poems and Drama for the form 1 to Form 3 is being designed.

 The main objective for this blog is to promote the love for poems and encourage the reading habit among students in secondary schools. The aesthetic component of the secondary English Language curriculum introduces a selections of poems in hoped that the students will be stimulated to read and support the language development in line with the ministry of education aspiration to uphold Bahasa Melayu and strengthen English Language.  Creative activities and strategies such as role-play or illustrating the poem will help the students to read and enjoy these poems. Through this, literature could be more meaningful and appreciated. 

This blog is designed to assist the PMR candidates to be familiar with the new  literature  component texts  in use for PMR beginning 2011. For Bahasa Inggeris Paper 2 (12/2), Section B,  the candidates are required to read and understand 6  poems for literature component  and answer two open-ended questions. The total marks for this question is 3 marks.